This consists of a short documentary, "Movie Memories" completed May , and a web archive of oral and written histories.
I have conducted very extensive research on the career and life of American film director, Clarence Brown, whose career spanned the period I have acted as a consultant for a long article on Brown by Jack Neely, which was published in Metropulse , Knoxville, Tennessee in March This article featured extensive quotes from me about my work on Brown and on his critical reputation. I recently completed a short documentary, written, produced and directed in collaboration with Dan O'Connell, titled "Movie Memories". A web archive consisting of podcasts, written memoirs, editorial content, archive footage, is currently being developed.
See corkmoviememories. Michael Lawrence and Karen Lury Palgrave, I was part of a team conducting research on Irish amateur filmmaking from Capturing the Nation: Irish Home Movies, As well as editing the collection, I co-wrote the Introduction, and wrote a chapter on Irish Amateur film collections. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. US: Palgrave-Macmillan. New York: Bloomsbury. New York and London: Bloomsbury. New Jersey: Rutgers. Dublin: Irish Academic press.
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Journal of East Tennessee History , 73 [Details]. Women became relegated to the subplot and kept, most often, on the home front. Using footage shot by the Army Signal Corps, the Division produced a newsreel called The Official War Review , which was shown in about half of the movie theaters in the U. These films also were widely screened and the CPI promoted them as patriotic civic events.
They also acted in concert with local business colleagues in cities and towns throughout the United States. This strategy gave the manager a new selling point and simultaneously helped to cultivate good will among his patrons by his patriotic action. The government, meanwhile, benefited from free advertising for its Bond sales and its coffers were increased by fifty dollars. During and , film exhibitors turned newly minted, potentially harmful, government regulations to their advantage. In the fall of , the federal government instituted a tax on theater admissions.
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Exhibitors passed the cost on to their consumers explaining it as another way that the ticket buyer was helping the government to finance the war. Manufacturers and businesses east of the Mississippi River, including Minnesota and Louisiana, were ordered to close for ten consecutive Mondays starting at midnight on 19 January.
American Cinema of the 1960s: Themes and Variations
This would have affected movie theaters. Almost immediately however, U. Fuel Administrator Harry A. Garfield amended the order to allow motion picture theaters to switch their closing day to Tuesday effectively providing them with a three-day weekend. Managers also enhanced the prestige and respectability of their theaters by lending space for civic appeals. They advertised and hosted benefits for war-related causes including the Red Cross and war bond drives. They served as collection points for peach pits that were processed and used as part of the filtering process in gas masks.
The Four Minute Men provided the most salient example of how film exhibitors protected and promoted their business interests while they also participated in the war effort and garnered kudos from their communities.
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The Four Minute Men included prominent local citizens in cities and towns throughout the United States: bankers, professors, lawyers, businessmen, and clergy among others who were also deemed to be effective public speakers. Too many people wanting to speak to the audience would have been a disruption to the business of showing movies. The speed and smoothness with which the U.
The government could deploy propaganda through many channels including films themselves, but movie theaters also to help spread its requests for food conservation, support for Liberty Bonds, and recruitment. The film industry, operating from a more defensive posture, understood that government posed a threat to its business as usual and its potential for expansion.
The foundation for both positions rested on the fact that by movies mattered—to business folk, to audiences and to opinion-makers. The film industry was profitable; and via its narratives, style, and stars, it was broadly influential. The relationship between the government and the film industry in World War I would serve as the successful precedent for future interactions.
A principal lesson to be learned from studying the behavior of the American film industry and its production, distribution and exhibition of films during the war is that none of its actions occurred in a vacuum. The industry developed in line with a general business trend in the United States toward consolidation; film narrative and style evolved according to tenets of classical Hollywood cinema, in place by ; and the business of theater management continued to conform to dictates from motion picture trade journals that advocated stitching the picture house into the fabric of the community.
A lesson learned from studying the films made during World War I, for example: The Little American , Hearts of the World , or Shoulder Arms and those war films produced in the s, especially The Big Parade and Wings , and through the decades, is that the narrative motifs which typify the World War I war film changed. In other words, the World War I war film provides an exemplar for how film genres alter over time. Forces including technology recorded sound, wide screen projection ; changing public knowledge, understanding, and opinion regarding the war; and the mode of production in the Hollywood the studio system, among others , influenced such shifts.
Still, what remains constant is the iconography of the war on film.
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Sand-bagged and muddy trenches are gashes in a flat landscape punctuated by stick-like trees. In the midst of battle the image is softened by the smoke of exploding bombs. If the film includes the war in the air, there will be a dogfight, while below trenches scar the fields where tanks roll like giant beetles. World War I and film also prompts historians to use conventional research tools and methods as well as to seek out new ones in the attempt to explain the function of film during wartime.