Rhetorik: Sag es mit dem Herzen (German Edition)

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Exodus 14, v. The TT is to take up three-quarters as many lines as the ST, so it should contain between and words the ST only contains , but many of these are long compounds. Discuss the strategic decisions that you have to take before starting detailed work on this ST, and outline and justify the strategy you adopt. Concentrate on the omissions, and on whether they have entailed introducing any exegetic elements. Contextual information The text introduces the long section on kitchen knives in the catalogue. The English catalogue is just as comprehensive, though more economical of space.

Both repeatedly emphasize the superior quality of the knives offered. Kenner haben das immer bedauert.


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Die Bearbeitung: geschmiedet oder gewalzt. Manufactum a: 11 2 Preliminaries to translation as a product Chapter 1 viewed translation as a process. In this chapter, we view it as a product. Here, too, it is useful to examine two diametric opposites: in this case, two opposed degrees of freedom of translation, showing extreme SL bias on the one hand and extreme TL bias on the other. The sofa lets itself with few manipulations into a bed transform.

Interlinear translation is normally only used in linguistics or language teaching. It is an extreme form of the much more common literal translation, where the literal meaning of words is taken as if straight from the dictionary, out of context, but TL grammar is respected. At the opposite extreme, TL bias, is free translation, where there is only an overall correspondence between the textual units of the ST and those of the TT.

With a few simple movements, the sofa can be converted into a bed.


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Converting the sofa into a bed is a matter of moments. First, it should be noted that, since literal translation respects TL grammar, it very often involves grammatical transposition — the replacement or reinforcement of given parts of speech or grammatical categories in the ST by others in the TT. But this still has not made for a very plausible 18 Thinking German translation TT.

Not surprisingly, there are further structural changes in the faithful and balanced translations. This TT is more appropriate for a furniture catalogue in both structure and vocabulary, but it could still sound a little odd in most contexts. Three major grammatical transpositions, then, but they are unexceptional and acceptable: this balanced translation is more idiomatic and more convincing, and hence better as a selling text than the literal and faithful translations.

Each of the TTs is open to query, and others could be suggested. Again, do the balanced and idiomizing translations misrepresent the focus of the ST? After all, it foregrounds the sofa more than the ease of conversion; these TTs highlight the convertibility rather than the sofa.

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However, some contexts offer less choice than others. This is often the case if the Preliminaries to translation as a product 2 3 4 6 7 8 1 2 4 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 19 ST contains an SL idiom, proverb or other expression standard for a given situation, and the TL offers an idiom, proverb or other expression standard for an equivalent target-culture situation. In such cases, using the TL equivalent is often inescapable. Wet paint Das hat nichts zu sagen. We will discuss communicative translation in Chapter 3. For the moment, we will just point out a seeming paradox: inasmuch as they diverge greatly from ST literal meanings, these ready-made communicative translations are examples of free translation; yet the translator seems to have little free choice as to whether or not to adopt them.

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There is no standard expression for this situation. Note also that a free translation does not have to be colloquial. Hermans provides a useful introduction to the question. According to this view, each of the TTs illustrating degrees of freedom p. So, normatively, the pairs tabulated on p. As we have just seen, there are all sorts of good reasons why a translator might not want to translate a given expression literally.

To begin with, who is to know what the relationship between ST message and source-culture receptors is? For that matter, is it plausible to speak of the relationship, as if there were only one: are there not as many relationships as there are receptors? And who is to know what such relationships can have been in the past? Wilhelm Tell, Das Kapital, Der Tod in Venedig: each is, and has been, different things to different people in different places at different times — and indeed, different to the same person at different times. In any case, most texts have plural effects even in one reading by one person; the less technical the text, the more likely this is.

And these problems apply as much to the TT as to the ST: who is to foresee the multiple relationships between the TT and its receptors? Indeed, it is used in this way in logic, mathematics and sign-theory, where an equivalent relationship is one that is objective, incontrovertible and — crucially — reversible. In translation, however, such unanimity and such reversibility are unthinkable for any but the very simplest of texts — and even then only in respect of literal meaning. And differences are not always subtle. This is how the term will be used in this book.

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There is a vital difference between the two ambitions. But it is more realistic, and more productive, to start by admitting that, because SL and TL are fundamentally different, the transfer from ST to TT inevitably imposes difference — or, as we shall argue, loss.

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We shall give the term translation loss to non-replication of the ST in the TT — that is, the inevitable loss of culturally relevant features. Indeed, one of the attractions of the notion is that it frees translators actually to exploit translation loss — to introduce any loss, however major, that enables them to implement the strategy fully. Quite apart from any need for compensation in actually doing the translation, the brief itself may require a gist translation, or an exegetic translation, or an adaptation for children or immigrants, or for the stage or radio, etc.


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The later translation introduces substantial translation loss — text added being a loss just like text taken away — but this is less serious than the obscurity of near-literal translation that leaves the allusion unexplained.

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