Sixty Forty Four Suburban

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There are This burst of family formation, of course, is quite typical for thirty-year olds, a plateau that millions of Millennials will reach in the next half-decade. And, rather than diverge from the pattern, Millennials are following it in their own way. This is good news long term for the economy since their major lifestyle changes will lead to a burst of spending by Millennials.

The big questions are where will they spend all that money and what will they spend it on? The Suburbs is the clear answer to the first question. The type of suburban living these Millennials favor, however, is a little different than many of the developments builders are planning to offer.

Sixty-one percent say they are looking for more space in their next home than they currently enjoy. The impact of student debt on this purchasing decision can clearly be seen in the current behavior of year old Millennials. Only half of those with student debt now own homes, while two-thirds of those lucky enough to graduate college without such debt are home owners.

This clearly indicates that student debt reform is the single most important issue facing realtors and home builders future success.

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It should be their priority in Washington. Those communities which can offer Millennials the type of lifestyle they desire will be rewarded with growth. Lifestyle and suburban population are important issues in the field of health. The living conditions of informal settlements can lead to acquisition of an unhealthy lifestyle. This study has been designed to investigate the articles that have been published regarding lifestyle in suburban populations. All Persian and English papers written from to were evaluated by two reviewers using an advanced search of the databases with keywords related to lifestyles and suburban population.

In total, 19 articles were found to have addressed the lifestyle in suburban populations. The results of these studies showed an unhealthy lifestyle in the most informal settlements. There was no food diversity. Malnutrition was common, especially overweight. The majority of the people did not have enough physical activity, and smoking and alcohol consumption were common, especially in men.

Studies showed that suburban populations are among the groups that have unfavorable environmental conditions to acquiring healthy lifestyle and maintaining appropriate health. Therefore, developing infrastructure, improving health services environment, treatment of diseases, reduction of malnutrition and infant mortality, access to safe drinking water and sanitation, improving waste disposal and recycling it , improving education and smoking prevention programs in improving lifestyle is recommended.

Lifestyle refers to the way of living that an individual chooses during life 1 and it is taken into account as an indicator of physical and mental health 2. A variety of definitions have been proposed for lifestyle. In general, lifestyle is associated with individual styles in routine life, and includes different factors such as personality traits, nutrition, physical activity, sleeping habits, coping with stress, social support, and use of medications 3 , 4.

Sixty Forty Four Suburban

In this regard, the World Health Organization WHO has defined lifestyle as the distinctive patterns of behavior formed through interaction between personality traits, social relationships, environmental conditions, and socioeconomic status 5. As a result; controlling improper lifestyles distinguished via poor nutrition, lack of exercise, smoking, and alcohol consumption can lead to a reduction in illnesses and mortality 7.

Suburban populations are among the groups influenced by inappropriate environmental conditions in terms of their lifestyles and health maintenance. Informal settlement is considered as a global and pervasive problem which can be abundantly observed in developing countries as well as developed ones 8. Over recent decades, unorganized neighborhoods and informal settlements mainly on the outskirts of large cities have been shaped and expanded across Iran. According to the latest statistics released, the population of informal settlers in Iran has increased to approximately Such informal settlements are characterized by poverty, illiteracy, illegal and low-income jobs, as well as poor living conditions.

Thus, the existing socioeconomic conditions hinder choosing healthy lifestyles for this group of society In general, inappropriate lifestyles including employment conditions, nutrition, and physical activities have been raised as influencing factors leading to death and diseases among suburban populations 11 who are stricken by poverty, the majority of whom are living in conditions below the poverty line 12 , Residents in such informal areas also suffer from ill-health asymmetry throughout lifetime.

Such individuals experience higher rates of illnesses, injuries, and premature death Living on the margins of cities similarly leads to premature aging and a range of chronic diseases including high blood pressure, arthritis, diabetes, and headache 15 — However, having a healthy and high-quality lifestyle coupled with acceptable lifetime with no diseases or disabilities is taken into account as universal rights and preconditions to achieve sustainable development 18 , Suburban populations are encountered by numerous challenges in their life-time including economic, social, educational, and health-related ones, of which consequences are not limited to this stratum of society, and can have impacts on an entire community 20 — As a result, the negative consequences of informal settlements are creating burdens for officials which affect health and welfare in individuals, families, and societies Worldwide, there have been numerous isolated studies conducted on lifestyle of suburban populations and each study has addressed the different dimensions of lifestyle.

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But, those results have not been summarized in one place. Given the importance of lifestyle among informal settlers, its understanding can be helpful in its reformation and reduction of health problems. Considering the problem of informal settlers is growing across the world including Iran, also, the significance of lifestyle in all health dimensions, and lack of a comprehensive review on lifestyles in informal settlements; a review study is essential to understanding the problems and challenges in suburban populations, and designing further research and programs to improving their health.

So, the present study was to investigate lifestyle among suburban populations. The present study was a systematic review.

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The present study was conducted in several steps including determination of problem of study problem statement , data collection, and interpretation of findings. To limit the data, key words and phrases suburban, suburbia, suburbanization, slum, informal settlements, lifestyle, nutrition, food consumption, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, sports, leisure, body mass index were used in this regard. In this study, all Farsi and English studies published between and were investigated.

At first, the researchers collected the published studies associated with lifestyles in informal settlements in Iran and other countries, and then a list of abstracts was prepared. After the removal of author and journal information, the full-text studies were submitted to the reviewer. If a study was rejected, the reasons for its refusal were highlighted. In the next step, the studies were investigated based on inclusion and exclusion criteria in order to select the best ones.

Exclusion criteria observed were 1 papers irrelevant to the topic, 2 data pertaining to review papers, case reports, abstracts, posters, theses and letters to the editor, 3 reporting repeated results from other papers. The final evaluation of the studies was quality assessment which was conducted through STROBE checklist for cross-sectional studies. STROBE checklist contains 22 items 25 and includes research title, year and place of study, sampling method, sample size and type of study. Quality assessment was conducted by two reviewers. Maximum score was Categorization of studies in terms of their subjects was shown in Figure 1.

Using thirteen keywords in combination or individually, 36 studies were obtained by eliminating irrelevant ones or those with duplicate results; out of which, 31 studies were selected and evaluated based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and STROBE checklist, then, twelve studies were excluded.

Finally, nineteen research studies were examined. There were limited studies in terms of health and lifestyle among informal settlers, and the studies conducted in this regard were from countries such as India 7 articles , Kenya 1article , Bangladesh 1article , Brazil 2 articles , Nigeria 1article , Peru 1article , Nepal 1article , South Africa 1article , and Iran 3 articles.

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In this systematic review, all the studies reviewed were cross-sectional descriptive 5 articles and descriptive-analytic 14 articles. Out of the 19 papers reviewed, 12 studies had examined weight control and body mass index BMI , 10 studies were on food intake, 9 investigations were associated with physical activity, 4 articles were related to tobacco and alcohol consumption, and 1 study had assessed leisure time activities among informal settlers. Results were chronologically summarized in Table 1 from the recently published papers to the previous ones. In terms of examining BMI, some studies reported overweight and obesity; for example, In the slum areas in Nairobi in Kenya, Fifteen point four percent of tobacco use and In addition, 1.

Lifestyle is characterized with numerous indicators including nutrition, physical activities, leisure time activities, sleeping habits, social relationships, family relationships, spirituality, security and relaxation 2 , 4. According to this review of studies on different dimensions of lifestyles among informal settlers, the findings revealed limited investigations in this respect.

Thus; the purpose of the present study was to gain knowledge and insight in terms of lifestyle in informal settlements. But as stated, the majority of the studies had only shed light on some dimensions of lifestyles which are discussed below. The results of studies on nutritional status suggested improper food diversity 34 , 39 and inadequate food intake among informal settlers The highest proportion of their energy was also obtained from carbohydrates and the lowest part was supplied with protein groups 27 , In their daily diet, salt intake was reported to be more than five grams 26 , Moreover, consumption of fruit and vegetables 26 , 28 , 40 as well as dairy products was insufficient However, it should be noted that dietary variety is essential to ensure adequate intake of nutrients.

Food diversity can be likewise used as an instrument to evaluate diet quality as well as household food security Lack of dietary diversity can be accompanied by cardiovascular diseases and increased risks of metabolic syndrome As a result, populations in informal settlements with a low-variety diet and the resulting lack of nutrients are vulnerable groups to malnutrition and associated diseases.

For example; in a nationwide study in southern Africa, the results demonstrated improper food variety among residents in informal neighborhoods In this respect, the high costs of healthy foods lead the poor towards high-energy but low-quality and inexpensive foodstuff In this regard, research studies have shown that low-calorie, nutritious, and less processed foods such as fruit and vegetables are generally more expensive, and their costs are as a barrier to access them among urban poor people 45 — As a result, implementation of health promotion strategies to improve dietary diversity will not be effective by itself in these areas and it is recommended, especially when the majority of the target population is comprised of low-income individuals, to analyze and determine the dietary needs carefully.

Overcoming obstacles in this respect requires a whole range of responses including efforts to reduce food prices, which simultaneously needs government intervention to supply food through taxes and subsidies.


Another dimension of lifestyle is weight control. Malnutrition has been reported to a large extent among informal settlers in the form of weight loss, overweight, and obesity.

The rate of underweight in informal settlers is reported to be more than that of the urban population. In the study conducted by Gaur et al. As a result, human rights-based programs are required to guarantee the elimination of hunger, and minimize the adverse impacts of urban poverty on nutritional health and development of organizations as well as laws and regulations to help the poor economically. The problem of overweight and obesity was also noticeable and pervasive among informal settlers, in a way that the review of the given studies showed the frequency of overweight BMI: 25— Research showed that nutritional deficiencies continue as a concern.

Investigations in various countries have similarly confirmed the relationship between poverty and overweight in a way that a rise in obesity has been reported in groups with lower economic status 50 — Food insecurity due to widespread urban poverty, as easily as it can lead to malnutrition, can also lead to overweight and obesity.

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Genetic factors, increasing more energy intake than consumption, sedentary lifestyle, environmental, social and psychological factors, neurological disorders and excessive nutrition in childhood are factors that contribute to obesity 52 — Lifestyle is the most important factor associated with obesity Due to the massive expansion of overweight in society, its prevention and treatment has become a public health priority Thus; according to statistics on malnutrition in the form of underweight or overweight, it is required to have planning for urban nutrition which can affect diets and behavioral changes.

Physical activity is also considered as one of the key factors in maintaining a healthy lifestyle and preventing overweight In terms of physical activity, most informal settlers experience a lifestyle deprived of sports. Inadequate physical activity was also confirmed in the majority of studies reviewed.

According to the results of an investigation by Gore and Mangala on slum dwellers in Bangalore, In the study by Taka and Tragler in Mumbai, only 7. In the study by Rajabi Gilan et al. The low, moderate, and high levels of physical activities among these individuals were The importance of physical activity in the prevention of diseases is also well-known. Such investigations showed the importance of socio-economic conditions and place of living on the levels of physical activities.

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Higher socioeconomic levels were likewise associated with better levels doing sports and exercises 57 — As a policy, it is recommended to develop urban infrastructure facilitating fun activities such as hiking and biking, provide sport facilities to citizens, and encourage use of non-motorized transportation. Since women are more deprived than men in terms of using urban facilities, the given policies should be gender-sensitive and target them specifically In the study by Oli et al.

In this respect, Furthermore; the results of a study by Rajabi Gilan et al. Numerous studies have also indicated that excessive alcohol and tobacco consumption was accompanied by a series of adverse social, economic, health-related consequences for society 59 — Thus, it is necessary to consider mechanisms leading to the use of these substances, and develop programs for the prevention of their consumption and complications.

In the study by Darvishi in Ardabil, causes of addiction among informal settlers were introduced as geographical conditions of informal neighborhoods high population density, possibility of hiding criminals, lower levels of social control, and lack of recreational sites , easy distribution of drugs and security provided to drug dealers, increased tendency to use drugs due to unemployment and low education level , unemployment, and economic poverty leading individuals to drug trafficking, lack of recreational and leisure time facilities, cultural poverty, low levels of literacy, lack of social justice, and gaps between social classes Given the specific causes of addiction in informal settlements as well as its high prevalence rate, it is necessary to identify and determine associated controlling solutions.

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Considering the high statistics in terms of populations of informal settlers in many countries in the world, and the limited number of studies on health status and lifestyles among them, further investigations are recommended in this respect to have a precise identification of upcoming problems and challenges, and provide solutions. Thus, a good understanding of this situation can lead to taking preventive measures and improving lifestyles with minimal negative consequences in terms of health.